In this Century the world of telecommunications is rapidly evolving from copper wire networks to fiber optics. Optical fiber is a very thin strand of pure glass which acts as a wave guide for light over long distances. It is a practical example of the principle known as total internal reflection
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Why use optic fiber cable?
- They have practically unlimited information
- They have high carrying capacity (very broad bandwidth, THz or Tbits/s)
- They have very low transmission losses (<0.2dB/km, cf1dB/km microwave, 10db/km twisted copper pair)
- They do not dissipate heat
- They are immune to cross-talk and electromagnetic interference
- High Distances
Fiber optic cable is composed of two layers of glass: The center, which carries the real light flag, and the cladding, which could be a layer of glass encompassing the center. The cladding contains a lower refractive record than the center. This causes Add up to Inner Reflection inside the center.
Most filaments operate in duplex sets: one fiber is utilized to transmit and the other is utilized to get. But it is conceivable to send both signals over a single strand. There are two main sorts of fiber optic cables: Single Mode Fiber (SMF) and Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF). The contrast is essentially within the measure of the center. MMF includes a much more extensive center, permitting different modes (or “rays”) of light to proliferate.
SMF contains a exceptionally contract center which permits as it were a single mode of light to proliferate. Each sort of fiber has diverse properties with its claim points of interest and impediments.